Article on "Farmer Suicides"

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India is an agriculture-based country because 70% of its population is involved in this profession. Because of this reason, previously, no Indian died without food. But the situation started changing in the late 90s. Farmers started facing difficulties, which ultimately provoked them to Suicide. Ordinary people get to know about this matter in 1990 when the famous English newspaper, Hindu, started publishing the farmers’ suicides. Initially, it started with a part of Maharashtra, but soon it became an annoying issue all over the country. Though the government is declaring various schemes for farmers, the situation is not better even today.

 

1. Causes: Research says that Suicide can’t happen because of an economic problem only, and it has some connection with mental health. But there are economic reasons which might have disturbed their mental health as well.

 

2. Liberalization and Globalization: Because of liberalization and globalization, India imported food grains from different countries at a lower price. On the other side, Indians farmers were left with the only option of burning their crops. It is because they were not getting even the equal money they’ve invested in cultivating the crops. As they already have poor financial background and debts in most cases, they were unable to face these losses. 

 

3. Neverending Debt: Most of the Indian farmers don’t own the land where they can cultivate. So, they agree to the policy, ‘batai,’ which means that the landlord will give his land to the farmer for cultivation. In return, the farmer has to share half of the crops with him. The farmers even borrow money from moneylenders for arranging the basic needs of farming. These moneylenders take compound interest from them. Falling under the trap of these people, the farmer gets nothing at the end of his hard work. Even the farmer is left with massive debt, which is sometimes carried out by the next generation.

 

4. Costly Essentials: The costs of seeds, fertilizers, chemicals, etc. got increased. So it became tough for the farmers to buy those products. Furthermore, new pieces of equipment for farming has been invented. But the low and middle-class farmers don’t have that much money to buy these products. As a result, they lose the battle in competition with the large scale production houses.

 

5. Government Policy: The government’s policies in favor of urban citizens is another cause for the sorrow of the Indian farmers. The government introduces policies like minimum export charges, essential goods, etc. These don’t work in favor of the farmers.

 

6. Absence of Literacy: Most Indian farmers are illiterate because they hardly get to know about government policies specially designed for them. Besides this, some middlemen also take a good percentage of their hard-earned money by buying crops from lower prices than the average market price.

 

7. Natural Calamity: After working hard enough, farmers also have to depend on their luck to succeed in earning money from their occupation. Natural calamities like floods, drought, etc. make their life full of insecurity.

 

8. Solution: Only the government can provide a proper solution to the farmers. They can provide them land for cultivating. The government can give loans to farmers at a lower interest rate. They can also provide subsidies to the lower and middle-class farmers in agricultural equipment. Apart from these, the government has to provide them security if their crops get wasted. At least, it should be ensured that the farmers are earning enough to live a healthy life. It will remove the stress from their lives. As a result, the number of suicides will decrease.

 

 

 

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