The popularity of yogurt as healthy food cannot be separated from the presence of yogurt bacteria, one of which is Lactobacillus acidophilus. This is a type of good bacteria that also occurs naturally in the body. Generally, L. acidophilus bacteria are found in the intestines, mouth, and vagina. These bacteria do not cause disease, on the contrary, they produce vitamin K and lactase. This enzyme lactase helps break down sugar in dairy products.
The Role of the yogurt bacteria is a completely harmless type of microbe. These bacteria can turn plain milk into delicious yogurt. There are several species of bacteria that are commonly used to make yogurt, including Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus case, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animals. The types of bacteria used in the yogurt manufacturing process are listed on the packaging. Different bacteria, different types of yogurt are produced. To be able to convert milk into yogurt, these good bacteria play a role in fermentation. In this fermentation process, the lactose sugar in milk is converted into lactic acid.
Lactic acid is what makes milk thicker and tastes sour and slightly sweet. The higher the lactic acid, the pH will decrease so that the consistency of milk becomes denser into yogurt. Furthermore, the type of milk will determine how the final yogurt is made. For example whole milk to make full-fat yogurt, low-fat milk for low-fat yogurt, and skim milk for nonfat yogurt. Other dairy products that can be included in the composition of yogurt will also affect the composition. For example, cream to adjust the fat content to nonfat milk to adjust the thickness of the yogurt.
Stages of making yogurt
The stages of making yogurt from the beginning until it can be consumed include:
1. Adjust the composition of milk needs to be adjusted to get yogurt with consistency according to taste. Sometimes, you can also add powdered milk to increase the amount of protein and get the texture you want. At this stage, all ingredients are mixed at once a stabilizer is added.
2. Pasteurization of milk Generally, pasteurized milk at a temperature of 85 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes or 95 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes. This high temperature is used to convert the whey protein in it. Thus, the protein will form a more stable gel so that the liquid does not break down when stored. In addition, the high temperature in this process also ensures that bacteria can grow properly. Yogurt is pasteurized before the culture is added to ensure it remains active.
3. Homogenization The next stage is to carry out homogenization to mix all raw materials. At this stage, the consistency of yogurt is getting closer to expectations.
4. Cool the milk Then, the milk will be cooled to a temperature of 42 degrees Celsius so that it can become a place to develop the culture. This temperature will continue to be maintained until the pH becomes 4.5. This process takes several hours to form a texture like a yogurt (soft gel).
5. Cool the yogurt Once you get the texture you want, the temperature will be lowered to 7 degrees Celsius. The goal is to stop the fermentation process. After the five steps above, then add other alternatives such as fruit and taste. The stages can be different depending on the type of yogurt being made. Finally, yogurt will be packaged according to taste.
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